Surveying and mapping is a field that brings together the gathering of land size information and the modelling of such information. Land Surveyors use the name geodesy for base surveys for large-scale mapping. Geodesy is the name of the science of taking measurements for large areas of land. This skill takes into account the actual shape of the earth. It does not assume a perfect sphere, but consider the real level changes of the earth.
In order to collect land information for 3D models and maps, surveying has to take place, using accurate references. In fact, project plans, designs, and models are only useful if there is a common reference. Users of surveying and mapping services require one of two things. Either to show land sizes, levels, conditions and other real world land aspects in the form of a virtual image or the opposite.
A virtual show of land can be in the form of a map, a 3D model or other computer aided designs (CAD).
Surveying makes use of start-of-the-art tools and machinery to come up with reliable and accurate sizes for mapping. Additionally, various geographic information systems can be made from land surveying data.
Aerial surveying is one of the methods in use to make maps to support reliable project plans and designs. Maps and surveys have wide use in industry. To do away with tedious work, aerial maps are in use. Mapping agencies take photos during flights. The flights are in strips which are pre determined.
Surveying and Mapping in Infrastructure Development
Surveying and mapping play a fundamental role to all civil engineering and roadway design work.
In construction and land development, the surveying function is to transfer design elements from CAD to the actual ground. Surveyors in engineering projects take both horizontal and vertical measurements in order to locate and mark up where objects should lie. Additionally, surveyors survey land to come up with contours to show how elevation and distance relate to each other on a piece of land.
An additional part of surveying measurement and mapping is in mining engineering. Surveying gives miners the direction of exploration for instance, as well measuring the volume of product. Normally, there is need for a monthly survey to give the amount of mineral produce. Surveying the mineral dumps will give accurate volume of mineral produce for the month.
Furthermore, building renovations that require excavation, makes use of maps showing sub surface utilities.
Summary of Surveys and Maps Process and Applications
Geodetic surveying – surveyors use geodetic science to come up with maps of large areas, which takes into account the real shape of the globe. The geodetic surveys do not assume a theoretical perfect sphere shape of the earth, but rather follows all variations of hills and valleys.
Geographic information systems, CAD drawings and modelling are products of surveying that are in use to manage construction projects, land use projects and other natural resource management tasks. Such data is useful in the management of engineering, mining, and land use fields.
Accurate maps showing boundaries, oceans, natural and man-made resources with a base reference are tools for national land administration.